Reference materials

The essential collection of data, guidance and codes for operating at Lloyd’s.

  • Catastrophe codes

    Codes can be allocated to a single loss occurring on a specified date or to a single loss incurred over a number of days.

    In these instances, the code is allocated based upon the year the accident occurred, followed by an alphabet suffix. A loss attributable to a common cause which occurs over a period of time and is not date specific is assigned a code which may be prefixed by * or !.

    The codes are not intended to bind underwriters or their reinsurers, but are merely to assist underwriters in identifying the various interests involved

    Catastrophe codes

  • Claims inflation

    Discussion document to define and monitor claims inflation

    Claims inflation is a vital input to planning, pricing, capital setting and reserving [1]. However, one of the biggest challenges is to establish a consistent definition across different business functions.

    Claims inflation document

  • Codes handbook

    Guide to the old Codes Handbook. Helps those operating in the Lloyd’s market to understand their responsibilities.

    Codes Handbook

  • Core market returns guidebook

    The Core Market Returns system (CMR) is a web-based system, used to collect syndicate level data to enable the Corporation of Lloyd’s to meet its reporting and analytical requirements.

    This guide aims to provide an overview of each of the returns within CMR and how the different departments within Lloyd’s as a whole use the information.

    Core Market Returns guidebook


  • Lloyd's syndicate map

    A graphical representation of all currently active, open and run-off syndicates and their corresponding managing agents.

    The Lloyd's Analysis team have developed a graphical representation of all currently active, open and run-off syndicates and their corresponding managing agents.

    Effectively this shows a "map" of all syndicates that traded in the Lloyd's market since 1993, the syndicate years into which they RITC'd and the syndicates that now hold those liabilities.

    Lloyd's syndicate map

  • Lloyds valuation of liabilities rules

    Lloyd's valuation of liabilities rules provide guidance and clarification for actuaries preparing Statements of Actuarial Opinion (SAOs) on syndicate technical provisions for solvency. This includes sample opinion wordings

    Lloyd's valuation of liabilities rules

  • Reinsurance to close report

    This report shows where the responsibility lies for all syndicate years of account (including those for incidental syndicates) from 1993 to current year and where applicate which syndicates have been reinsured to close into another syndicate.

    This report will enable brokers, policyholders and managing agents to trace where a syndicate now resides and who is responsible for the business.

    Reinsurance to close report

  • Reserving guidance

    Lloyd’s has set out guidance and key principles surrounding the setting of reserves for syndicates. The document “Lloyd’s Reserving Guidance - Summary” sets out in summarised form the key principles and minimum standards, together with what oversight Lloyd’s will carry out.

    Reserving guidance

  • Risk codes

    Information on risk codes with access to related market bulletin, guidance notes and a list of risk codes

    Risk codes



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