Natural environment

Natural perils, such as flood, windstorm and earthquake, present a serious risk for society and business. Understanding of the dynamic changes underway in the earth’s natural environment is critical to effective risk management and disaster risk resilience

Risk considerations for a new era of mining

Lloyd's 'After the storms' report focuses on the insurance of hurricane-related risks. The 2017 hurricane season, aside from the record-breaking losses, generated losses of large magnitude in a number of different classes of insurance and from different types of loss events.

This report introduces a new model to help fill the gap in earthquake modelling for the rapdily urbanising Middle East region

In weather and climate science, links between extreme weather events occurring in separate regions of the world, taking place over timescales from days to years, are known as teleconnections. The frequency and impacts of teleconnections take place are important for insurers, and particularly reinsurers, both of whom are required to hold a level of capital that adequately reflects their exposure to losses including material weather events.

Although California is currently enduring its worst drought for 1200 years, record rainfall that has hit parts of the state over the last month along with a strengthening El Niño has highlighted the fact that flooding remains a significant natural peril in the region.

California Flood report  

The potential for climate change to drive changes in the severity and likelihood of extreme weather events could have implications for the accuracy of natural catastrophe models. This report examines whether and how catastrophe models account for climate change through a series of case studies provided by a range of academic and commercial model providers.

Catastrophe modelling and Climate Change  

Rising property value and a growing desire to live in the Wildland Urban Interface has increased the risk of wildfires in certain regions. This report examines wildfire risk, looking at trends and the regions most at risk.

Wildfire report  

The report, which was produced in collaboration with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER), examines the impact of solar storms on North America’s electric grid. By developing a model, the report quantifies the risk of space weather to North America.

Lloyd's solar storms report  

This report examines tornado risk and whether it is changing. The report highlights that historical tornado data can both unreliable and inconsistent which makes identifying long term trends, and possible links to tornado patterns and climate change almost impossible.


The severity and frequency of hurricanes are influenced by changes in the climate of the Atlantic over the long term, and in particular, the changes over many decades of sea surface temperatures.


Rapid and disruptive change in the Arctic environment presents uneven prospects for investment and economic development. This report examines the risks and opportunities the Arctic offers.

Arctic Risk Report  

Flooding remains the UK’s most significant natural hazard. This report sets out an approach to flood risk assessment based upon an understanding of past and future river dynamics. The report also examines methods to extend UK flood records highlighting how recent damaging flood events are not unprecedented.


This paper outlines the scope and objectives of the research being conducted by Joanne Wood at the University of Exeter into the influence of climate change on the risk of landslides in the Alps.

Landslide risk report thumbnail  

The report, produced in consultation with a panel of experts from the Lloyd’s market, sets out nine key principles for addressing the issue of rising losses from extreme weather events and other natural catastrophes in the US.


This report has been produced in co-operation with the Royal United Services Institute and examines how insurers and key stakeholders can work together to improve flood resilience, response and recovery.

RUSI Reporting  

This joint Lloyd's and Met Office report examines the potential value of long-range forecasting for the insurance industry. It highlights how forecasting scientists are developing models to predict weather events and patterns over timeframes from the seasonal to several years, which should be useful to insurers.

Forecasting Report Thumbnail  

Produced by Lloyd's and RAL Space, this report aims to increase awareness of space weather as a global risk. The report explores the threats to business and highlights ways in which companies can better manage this growing risk.

Lloyd's 360 Space Weather Report  

A detailed new study from Lloyd’s shows that East London has experienced a tenfold increase in extreme daily rainfall since 1960. As well as this report, please see the data provided at the bottom of the text.


The report produced in association with WWF aims to increase awareness of water as a key resource under threat. It explores the increasing threat to business from water scarcity and highlights ways in which companies can better manage this growing risk.

Water scarcity thumb  

This report, produced in collaboration with the International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), identifies four major areas in which climate change might lead to an adverse impact on global security


Climate models clearly show that our weather patterns are changing and that as a result sea levels will rise. Lloyd’s teamed up with Risk Management Solutions to look at how measures of defence against flooding could help to maintain the affordability and availability of insurance in the future.

Coastal Communities thumb  

Lake Okeechobee is highly vulnerable to hurricane damage. This report looks at the risks associated with the collapse of the Herbert Hoover Dike in Florida.

Lake Okeechobee  

This report further examines the realities of climate change and the critical need for action within our lifetime to mitigate its effects.With insight from leading scientists, this report particularly focuses on four areas; sea level rise, melting icecaps, flood and drought. Climate change is not a gradual phenomenon. The latest scientific research shows that it is likely to bring increasingly dramatic and possibly rapid, effects at a local level.


This report addresses the issues and impact of climate change and the steps the insurance industry might take to prepare for the increasing volatility of the climate.




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