Natural environment

Natural perils, such as flood, windstorm and earthquake, present a serious risk for society and business. Understanding of the dynamic changes underway in the earth’s natural environment is critical to effective risk management and disaster risk resilience

Risk considerations for a new era of mining

Lloyd's 'After the storms' report focuses on the insurance of hurricane-related risks. The 2017 hurricane season, aside from the record-breaking losses, generated losses of large magnitude in a number of different classes of insurance and from different types of loss events.

This report introduces a new model to help fill the gap in earthquake modelling for the rapdily urbanising Middle East region

In weather and climate science, links between extreme weather events occurring in separate regions of the world, taking place over timescales from days to years, are known as teleconnections. The frequency and impacts of teleconnections take place are important for insurers, and particularly reinsurers, both of whom are required to hold a level of capital that adequately reflects their exposure to losses including material weather events.

Although California is currently enduring its worst drought for 1200 years, record rainfall that has hit parts of the state over the last month along with a strengthening El Niño has highlighted the fact that flooding remains a significant natural peril in the region.

California Flood report  

The potential for climate change to drive changes in the severity and likelihood of extreme weather events could have implications for the accuracy of natural catastrophe models. This report examines whether and how catastrophe models account for climate change through a series of case studies provided by a range of academic and commercial model providers.

Catastrophe modelling and Climate Change  

Rising property value and a growing desire to live in the Wildland Urban Interface has increased the risk of wildfires in certain regions. This report examines wildfire risk, looking at trends and the regions most at risk.

Wildfire report  

The report, which was produced in collaboration with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER), examines the impact of solar storms on North America’s electric grid. By developing a model, the report quantifies the risk of space weather to North America.

Lloyd's solar storms report  

This report examines tornado risk and whether it is changing. The report highlights that historical tornado data can both unreliable and inconsistent which makes identifying long term trends, and possible links to tornado patterns and climate change almost impossible.


The severity and frequency of hurricanes are influenced by changes in the climate of the Atlantic over the long term, and in particular, the changes over many decades of sea surface temperatures.